Wednesday, September 2, 2020

Chapter 3 Synthesis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Section 3 Synthesis - Essay Example the study hall condition and give positive conduct model (behaviorism) just as psyche the distinctions in culture, instructive foundation, learning styles, and family life of the understudies (cognitivism). Constructivism underscores useful parts of picking up, affirming that all the members of the exercise develop information altogether, here and there with significant changes all the while, which requires from educators adaptability and innovativeness. As a general rule, instructors ought to put a great deal of time in anticipation of exercises: clarifying the significance of exercises, choosing exercises, their succession, playback methodologies, and practicing. This will permit giving more consideration to prompt responses of the understudies: the part recommends evaluating the advancement of understudies and the environment in homeroom with maximal recurrence. A perfect study hall works for itself as in understudies fill in so much if not more than educator and that they are so occupied with learning as to show one another. In such collective condition, an instructor imparts to understudies his/her desires and his/her impressions from the way toward educating while at the same time staying opened to the students’

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Soul Surfer Main Character

I ask you this; whenever given the picked, OK pick confidence over dread? Love over abhor? Triumph over disappointment? Remarkable over normal? Bethany Hamilton, only thirteen at that point, lost her left arm when a fourteen-foot tiger shark scammed it while she was surfing with companions in Hawaii.Soul Surfer, the moving story brings us into Hamilton’s life and recuperation process after the assault. With only positive messages about conflicting with all chances and defeating the hardest of hindrances, an enticingly one of a kind storyline, and spellbinding characters; Soul Surfer is an unquestionable requirement watch. This film has numerous positive exercises to be acknowledged all through the film. In any case, the most grounded messages are that with a touch of point of view and the help of our loved ones. You can endure the most noticeably awful of catastrophes. Our loved ones are regularly our emotionally supportive network. With them, anything becomes possible.Tom Ham ilton, Bethany’s father (played by Dennis Quaid) reveals to Bethany when she is prepared to stop surfing after the assault; â€Å"That shark didn’t execute you, you are still here, still alive, with a family who adores you†. Bethany may have lost an arm, yet this shouldn't imply that she has lost everything. All through this daunting struggle, Bethany has her loved ones there for her to assist her with getting back on the board with certainty and to transform surfing again into the blissful leisure activity she at first began to look all starry eyed at with.Similarly, point of view is everything. It is our point of view and how we can see and in the end deal with life’s least complex and hardest choices. During one of the towns youth evenings, Sarah Hill, the young group’s minister (played via Carrie Underwood) says â€Å"It can be difficult to understand things when you are seeing them truly close. The equivalent is valid throughout everyday life , so on the off chance that you are ever managing whatever is simply too difficult to even think about handling, or doesn't appear to bode well, get another perspective.† After the assault Bethany battles in finding a motivation behind why this has all happened to her. Why she has lost her arm, why she should figure out how to do nearly everything once more, and how this could be divine beings plan for her.Through the direction of Sarah’s counsel in getting another viewpoint, and through her own confidence, Bethany had the option to arrive at a positive resolution. With point of view and bolster you can make it over the most noteworthy obstructions. The movie’s enticingly one of a kind story makes an everlasting association between your own life and to the life of Bethany Hamilton’s. In light of genuine life occasions, this story will rouse you to adore yourself, and to beâ thankful for all that you have. At the point when chief Sean McNama was gotten som e information about the difficulties of making this film and he said â€Å"it is about who Bethany truly is, thus better believe it there was some give and take on the two sides to make it incredible, yet I resembled let’s simply be consistent with what she is.†Since Sean had the option to remain so consistent with whom and what the genuine Bethany is about, it makes you truly observe and have a gratefulness for all she has experienced. Also, moreover, all the battles and snags she will keep on being confronted with all through a mind-blowing remainder. Moreover, the enhancements of this film truly add on to the general execution and the truth of the story. AnnaShophia Robb wore a green sleeve on her arm, which was later carefully evacuated to depict the missing appendage. After the shooting of the genuine scene occurred, the group would shot a second one without anyone, guaranteeing the foundation would coordinate with the film scene.They needed to do this for each sc ene that Bethany was in, along these lines for most of the film. This was troublesome in light of the fact that they needed to do this without burning through valuable measures of time. The principle reason being, they were depending on the climate to hold up. All the additional work and scrupulousness paid off, in light of the fact that everything looks practical, and as a watcher you can stay concentrated on the story and not the conspicuous Photoshop. When brushing a story line dependent on evident life occasions and mind blowing embellishments, you are left with a dazzling movie.Creating relatable and persuading characters is maybe the hardest perspective in making films. You may know her from films, for example, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, Race to Witch Mountain, or possibly from Because of Winn-Dixie. AnnaSophia Robb plays the primary character of Bethany Hamilton. The character of Bethany is a solid one without a doubt. With her determination and certainty, she surpass es the various characters, making her relatable. One of the most important statements in this move is said by the character herself, â€Å"I don't require simple, I simply need possible.† (4) What makes this job so solid is all through the whole film, you set out on this excursion and you look out for Bethany’s character to breakdown, quit, or to lose confidence in all things. Be that as it may, she never does.She gives us her quality, assurance and will to locate the positive results in every single grievous thing. In spite of the fact that the character of Bethany Hamilton is phenomenal, Soul Surfer has at any rate two critical characters. You may know her from her triumph on the fourth period of American Idol, or the tale of a little town Oklahoma young lady turns platinum recording craftsman; Carrie Underwood makes her acting presentation, assuming the helpful job of the adolescent group’s minister Sarah Hill. Carrie shows that she can illuminate a big scr een in her film debut, yet it is the character she plays that makes the film as moving as it seems to be. Sarah Hill explains to Bethany â€Å"I don't have the foggiest idea why horrible things transpire here and there, yet I need to think something great is going to come out of this.†This moves Bethany to get once more into the water, and to not lose confidence in herself and her capacities, yet in addition not lose confidence in God and the job he plays throughout her life. Sarah’s empathy and Christian convictions make this film moving, relatable, and moving. Sarah’s character exhibits a solid Christian conviction which stays consistent with the life of the genuine Bethany Hamilton; by as yet having a colossal hugeness to the story, Sarah does this without estranging the non-Christian audiences.Over the previous ten years, since the disastrous mishap, Bethany has been honored with endless chances to impart her story and her confidence to the world, empowering the individuals who are attempting to defeat troubles of their own. Through this film, we praise the life of our own one of a kind ‘Soul Surfer’. On the off chance that you appreciate positive messages leaving you with innumerable Goosebumps, a captivating story, and extraordinary characters, I strongly prescribe you to go watch this film.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Tiger Mom Essay

In perusing â€Å"Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mom† by Amy Chua, I was astounded how Chua partook in insight concerning her life venture as a parent and bringing up two youngsters. This is a book about Amy Chua’s encounters in bringing up her two little girls, Sophia and Luisa (Lulu), in what she accepts is the â€Å"Chinese mother† style of child rearing. She rushes to bring up in the main section, entitled â€Å"The Chinese Mother,† that she utilizes the term â€Å"loosely† as it is strange to attempt to expect that each mother from China is a like a tiger mom.Just as â€Å"Western parents† would not be a proper mark to put on each parent from Western nations. In this equivalent section she references an examination where â€Å"50 Western American moms and 48 Chinese settler mothers† were surveyed on the job of guardians in children’s scholastic achievement; with â€Å"70% of Western moms thought ‘stressing scholarly achiev ement isn't useful for the children’ or ‘parents need to encourage the possibility that learning is fun’† versus almost â€Å"0% of the Chinese moms felt the equivalent way.† Although she states there are a few investigations that help this hypothesis, I would not place a lot of trustworthiness in this specific examination since the pool is excessively little and there are a great deal of â€Å"Western American mothers† with various style of child rearing. A â€Å"Western American mother† can be from as far west as Hawaii or from as upper east as Maine; at that point there is everybody in between.She additionally gives us a rundown of what a Chinese mother’s conviction framework involves: â€Å"schoolwork consistently starts things out; an A-less is an awful evaluation; your youngsters must be two years in front of their colleagues in math; you should never praise your kids out in the open; if your kid ever can't help contradict ing an educator or mentor, you should consistently take the side of the instructor or mentor; (6) the main exercises your kids ought to be allowed to do are those in which they can in the end decoration; and that award must be gold. † This rundown appears to be somewhat outrageous to me, however I get it just relies upon what you are raised to accept is the norm.When you know nothing extraordinary, this is ordinary, expected and acknowledged. As I read the book, I immediately acknowledged Amy Chua is expert â€Å"Chinese† child rearing style. In part four, â€Å"The Chuas,† she depicted how her and her sisters were to talk just in Chinese in the home; â€Å"drilled math and piano everyday;† and they were not permitted to go to sleepovers at friends’ homes. However, she likewise recounts when she produced her dad signature so as to apply to a school in the East Coast after her dad had just said she would go to the University of California at Berkeley , where he was a professor.Here I saw somewhat of a resistance, which she will come to see later in the book with her little girl Lulu. All through the book, I saw numerous instances of how Chua contrasted â€Å"Chinese† child rearing with â€Å"Western† child rearing. This is particularly evident in section 10, â€Å"Teeth Marks and Bubbles. † She recounts to the narrative of how she had called her oldest girl, Sophia, trash for something Chua accepted to be â€Å"extremely disrespectful†, in spite of the fact that she never referenced the offense. She says her dad had called her something very similar when she was ill bred to her mom. Be that as it may, as indicated by her, it didn't harm her self-esteem.However, when she retold this story at friend’s evening gathering, she was promptly viewed with scorn and felt avoided by everyone around her. She continues expressing the three major contrasts between the attitudes of Chinese and Western guardia ns. To begin with, Western guardians stress over a child’s confidence and are progressively worried about the child’s mind, while Chinese guardians don’t. Chinese guardians â€Å"assume quality, not delicacy, and thus they carry on in an unexpected way. † Second, Chinese guardians feel their kids ought to be obligated to them for the penances the guardians made on their children’s behalf.Therefore, they â€Å"must spend their lives reimbursing their folks by obeying them and doing right by them. † Most Western guardians don't want to apply that equivalent weight on their youngsters. Third, Chua claims Chinese guardians accept they comprehend what is best for their kids and feel qualified for override the entirety of their children’s decisions and additionally choices. In this specific occurrence, I accept a most guardians, not just Chinese guardians, accept they comprehend what is best for their kids. Chinese guardians make it a strid e further and don't permit decisions for their kids, though Western guardians do permit their youngster to have choices.Although Chua contends for the Chinese child rearing style, she is just expressing the contrasts between the two methodologies and the one she likes. She gives us access to her reality and strolls us through her hardships with the â€Å"Chinese mother† approach she chose to follow. Where this style of child rearing had worked with her and her sisters and somewhat her oldest little girl, Sophia, anyway Lulu was not all that tolerant. Close to the finish of the book, explicitly in Chapter 31 â€Å"Red Square,† everything reaches boiling point as she has, yet, another battle with Lulu at the GUM cafe.After the battle, Chua flees into the Red Square to be with her contemplations, at that point has a revelation and understands that Lulu was opposing her and her â€Å"Chinese mother† style of child rearing. At the point when she comes back to the bis tro, she advises Lulu that she had won and she would be permitted to settle on her own decisions and quit the violin. Do I favor this sort of child rearing? The style of child rearing Chua depicts in her diary is that of a dictator child rearing style, which â€Å"emphasizes elevated requirements and an inclination to control kids through disgracing, the withdrawal of adoration, or punishments† (http://www.parentingscience. com/chinese-child rearing. html).This style I don't concur with. Actually, as indicated by Dr. Gwen Dewar, â€Å"authoritarian child rearing is connected with lower levels of discretion, increasingly enthusiastic issues, and lower scholastic execution. † Dr. Dewar is more for a legitimate child rearing that includes the equivalent stresses of elevated requirements, yet additionally includes â€Å"parental warmth and a guarantee to dissuade children† (http://www. parentingscience. com/chinese-child rearing. html).There is nothing amiss with ne eding the best for your youngsters, needing them to succeed and imparting a difficult hard working attitude and giving direction, anyway it ought not be to the detriment of the child’s mental prosperity. Despite the fact that it would appear that Chua’s little girl, Sophia, had profited by this style of child rearing, they may simply start to acknowledge they could have accomplished similar outcomes without the outrageous provocation. The truth will surface eventually if Chua’s little girls will wind up despising her as her dad wound up disliking and disengaging himself from his family in the wake of contradicting his dictator mother.Especially Lulu, who was the most troublesome one. As expressed before all else, this is a book on how a â€Å"Chinese mother† style of child rearing was utilized by Amy Chua and the outcomes she had with this style. Despite the fact that, I may not concur with the entirety of the parts of this style, it has its aces, for exa mple, needing your kid to as well as can be expected be and its cons, for example, the deprecating of a kid can never be acceptable. This was never planned to be a â€Å"How to Guide† to parent your youngsters, as Chua expressed in a meeting after the book was discharged (http://abcnews. dangers child rearing exposition/story? id=12628830).Chua has gotten a great deal analysis from numerous individuals, however I concur with her, this isn't a manual for parent a youngster. The explanation being is that every kid is one of a kind in its own specific manner. What might be a decent methodology for one, it not really useful for another. As she recognized in her book, â€Å"When Chinese child rearing succeeds, there’s in no way like it. However, it doesn’t consistently succeed. † However, by the day's end you settle on the choice you feel is directly for you and your family and alter, varying, as you come.

Wednesday, May 27, 2020

How the LSAT Will Help You in Law School

LSAT aces, get ready! [Elle gets a 179 inLegally Blonde] If you’re going to law school, you’ve taken the LSAT. (How’s that for a valid conclusion! In fact, taking the LSAT is a necessary, but not a sufficient, condition for attending law school.) The LSAT is meant to predict first-year grades in law school, and there’s some evidence -- if you trust the company which administers it -- that the predictions are decently valid. (That’s a topic for another whole blog post†¦) So, if you feel good about your LSAT score -- and the thought of the LSAT doesn’t give you nightmares -- the LSAC would tell you to feel prepared for that dreaded first year of law school. But predictive validity isn’t everything: from my limited experience, people all over the LSAT spectrum can have all sorts of success in law school. So how does being a law student really compare to taking the LSAT? For your reading pleasure, here’s a section-by-section breakdown below. Logical Reasoning How It Helps: The logical reasoning section asks you to evaluate, analyze, support, and pick apart short arguments. That’s exactly what lawyers do! Seriously, it doesn’t get more practical than this. If you can identify the many arguments in a case or brief, take them apart, examine them, and then respond to them in a logical manner, you’ll go a long ways in law school and beyond How It’s Different: Logical reasoning questions are short, and there’s a single argument to assess. Legal opinions, briefs, and memos are long, and might contain several major arguments, each supported by dozens of analytical moves. Understanding and unpacking them requires a commitment and stamina that the LSAT can’t possibly measure. Being able to answer a multiple-choice question quickly does not a good lawyer make. Reading Comprehension How It Helps: See above! (Or, as lawyers say, supra. Get used to it.) Law school involves a ton of reading, and you need to be able to read and process it efficiently. The comparative reading section, which asks you to see how various readings relate to each other, is especially important: much of what you’ll be doing in law school is reading different sources of authority (opinions, treatises, hornbooks) and seeing how they all fit together. How It’s Different: Merely understanding what’s contained in a text is rarely enough in law school. What’s most important -- and what you’ll learn to do, eventually -- is understanding what’s between the lines, what’s behind them, and where they will lead. One of my favorite law professors, Elizabeth Warren, never asked us for the â€Å"main idea† of a passage, or to recall a detail hidden in a dense block of text. Instead, she asked us to infer the issues driving the case. I’ve yet to see an LSAT question that requires that! Analytical Reasoning How It Helps with Law School: Think logic games were intimidating? Try 1L! Just kidding, although there is something to be said for mastering something that is really challenging. What the logic games force you to do is identify the logical consequences of a few given rules, which is exactly what lawyers do when they take existing rules -- from statutes, or precedent -- and apply them to new, potentially unforeseen, situations. It’s also exactly what law school exams will ask you to do, albeit in writing and not in multiple-choice questions. How It’s Different from Law School: If you’re going to law school, memorize this: â€Å"There are no right answers!† (Well, there are some, but not many.) Logic games, tricky as they can be, have cut-and-dry answers that simply don’t exist in the law. In fact, what law professors value is not so much your ability to apply legal rules in a straightforward manner but rather your ability to play with the rules, to see both sides, and to highlight the ambiguity. That’s what really demonstrates mastery of the law! It just doesn’t show up on the LSAT. The Writing Section How It Helps with Law School: No, I didn’t forget this section! It’s not scored, but your legal writing certainly will be. In some ways, this section is the most applicable to law school: it requires you to take a few pieces of information, and advocate for one position or the other. As on an issue-spotter exam, what matters is not so much your answer as how you defend and explain it. This is pretty good practice! How It’s Different from Law School: The writing section is timed, and the prompts are uncontroversial. It’s hard to get too emotional about them on an exam! But, one of the great things about law school is that you are working on real issues, which you might -- and should -- really care about, and it can be really hard to decouple your emotions from your analysis. But, to be a truly effective advocate, that’s often exactly what you have to do. It’s definitely an acquired skill. But that’s the point of law school! So, LSAT aces, take heart! Your logical prowess will serve you in law school. And, LSAT dreaders, take heart too! Law school is nothing like the test at all. (How’s that for the ability to argue both sides?) Interested in working with a legal studies tutor to coach you through your first year of law school? Feel free to drop us a note! Our law school tutors are based in Boston, Cambridge, and online. For more blog posts on legal studies, check out 6 Tips for 1L Success, Big Law versus Public Interest, and 6 Essential Law School Cases: A 1L’s Guide ;

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Hans Lippershey Telescope and Microscope Inventor

Who was the first person to create a telescope? Its one of the most indispensable tools in astronomy, so it seems like the person who first came up with the idea would be well known and written up in history. Unfortunately, no one is quite sure who was the first to design and build one, but the most likely suspect was a German optician named Hans Lippershey.  Ã‚   Meet the Man Behind the Idea of the Telescope Hans Lippershey was born in 1570 in Wesel, Germany, but little else is known about his early life. He moved to Middleburg (now a Dutch town) and married in 1594. He took up the trade of optician, eventually becoming a master lens grinder. By all accounts, he was a tinkerer who tried various methods of creating lenses for glasses and other uses. In the late 1500s, he began experimenting with lining up lenses to magnify the view of distant objects. Fast Facts: Hans Lippershey Born: 1570 in Wesel, GermanyMarried: 1594, no information on spouse or childrenEducation: Trained as an optician in Middleburg, Zeeland (Netherlands)Key accomplishments:  Invented spyglasses, telescope, and microscope From the historical record, it appears that Lippershey was the first to use a pair of lenses in this way. However, he may not have been the first to actually experiment with combining lenses to create crude telescopes and binoculars. There is a tale that says some children were playing with flawed lenses from his workshop to make distant objects look bigger. Their crude toy inspired him to do further experiments after he  watched what they were doing. He built a housing to hold the lenses and experimented with their placement inside. While others, such as Jacob Metius and Zacharias Janssen, later also claimed to invent the telescope, it was Lippershey who worked on perfecting the optical technique and application. His earliest instrument was simply two lenses held in place so that an observer could look through them to distant objects. He called it a looker (in Dutch, that would be kijker). Its invention immediately led to the development of spyglasses and other magnifying devices. It was the first known version of what we know today as a refracting telescope. Such a lens arrangement is now common in camera lenses. Too Far Ahead of His Time? Eventually, in 1608, Lippershey applied to the government of the Netherlands for a patent on his invention. Unfortunately, his patent request was denied. The government thought that the looker could not be kept a secret because it was such a simple idea. However, he was asked to create several binocular telescopes for the Netherlands government and was well compensated for his work. His invention was not called telescope at first; instead, people referred to it as the Dutch reflecting glass.  The theologian Giovanni Demisiani actually came up with the word telescope first, from the Greek words for far (telos) and skopein, meaning to see, to look. The Idea Spreads After Lippersheys application for the patent was publicized, people across Europe took notice of his work and began fiddling with their own versions of the instrument. The most famous of these was Italian scientist  Galileo Galilei, who used a telescope of his own making based on Lippersheys work and wrote about his observations. Once he learned of the device, Galileo began constructing his own, eventually increasing the magnification to a factor of 20. Using that improved version of the telescope, Galileo was able to spot mountains and craters on the Moon, see that the Milky Way was composed of stars, and discover the four largest moons of Jupiter (which are now called the Galileans). Lippershey didnt stop his work with optics, and eventually, he invented the compound microscope, which uses lenses to make very small things look large. However, theres some argument that the microscope may have been invented by two other Dutch opticians, Hans, and Zacharias Janssen, who were making similar optical devices. However, records are very scanty, so its hard to know who actually came up with the idea first. Nonetheless, once the idea was out of the bag, scientists began finding many uses for this way of magnifying the very small and the very distant.   Lippersheys Legacy Hans Lippershey (whose name is also sometimes spelled Lipperhey) died in the Netherlands in 1619, just a few years after Galileos monumental observations using the telescope. A crater on the Moon is named in his honor, as well as asteroid 31338 Lipperhey. In addition, a recently discovered exoplanet bears his name. Today, thanks to his  original work, an amazing variety of telescopes are in use around the world and in orbit. They function using the same principle he first noticed—using optics to make distant objects look larger and give astronomers more detailed looks at celestial objects. Most telescopes today are reflectors, which use mirrors to reflect the light from an object. The use of optics in their eyepieces and onboard instruments (installed on such orbital observatories as the Hubble Space Telescope) continues to help observers—particularly using backyard-type telescopes—to refine the view even more.   Sources The Galileo Project (Rice University): Hans LippersheyHistory of Information: Hans Lippershey Invents the TelescopeHistory of the TelescopeMolecular Expressions: Hans Lippershey ​Edited by Carolyn Collins Petersen.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Sexual Orientation And Race Domestic Violence - 1094 Words

Jaslyn Faz Mrs. Fields English 1101 TR 9:10 21 October 2014 Domestic Violence October is known for many things such as Breast Cancer Awareness Month and the beginning of fall. The end of October is known for Halloween where children dress up in costumes and knock on doors to receive candy. What many people do not know is that October is also known for being an awareness month for domestic violence. Domestic violence can be categorized into physical, emotional, and psychological violence against not only women but also men. Domestic violence can happen to anyone of any age and gender starting from babies and ending to elderlies in homes they are sent to live in. Regardless of one’s sexual orientation and race domestic violence can occur to anyone who are in relationships. Domestic violence not only affects those who are the victims but also to the people who are close to them such as neighbors, children, family members, co- workers, and people who have an insight on the situation. It is important for the victim to address the problem with someone who can help. Although the abuser can promise to change and get better, the victim must remove himself or herself from the situation to reduce risks of long-term affects. Domestic violence is usually associated with physical touching such as assault. A survey, conducted in Malawi in 2004, reported that 18% of women have experienced physical violence in the past year. One third of women stated they were in a controllingShow MoreRelatedDomestic Violence An d Sexual Violence1411 Words   |  6 PagesThe term domestic violence is defined as the deliberate frightening, sexual and physical assault, or a behavior that is abusive or intolerable to others as a part of the regular sequence of power and the domination executed by one confidant companion to the other. The patterns of domestic violence usually comprise of the sexual violence, abusing the partner emotionally, psychological assault, and the physical violence. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Credit Risk Assessment free essay sample

There needs for a critical evaluation of the most popular credit risk assessment methods such as the judgmental method, credit-scoring and portfolio models along with limitations used. Survey interview process is needed for confirming that credit risk assessment methods should be combined for effective credit risk assessment. Accordingly, the study proposes a framework for improving credit risk assessment, which combines the strengths of these methods and copes successfully with study limitations. INTRODUCTION Credit risk covers risks due to upgrading or downgrading a borrowers credit worthiness which depend ob the potential sources of the risk who the client may be and who uses it as banks in particular are devoting a considerable amount of time and thoughts to defining and managing credit risk. There are two sources of uncertainty in credit risk: default by a party to a financial contract and a change in the present value of future cash flows that result from changes in financial market conditions as well as changes in the economic development. Credit risk considerations underlie capital adequacy requirements regulations that are required by financial institutions but financial borrowing as well as lending transactions are sensitive to credit risk, to protect themselves firms and individuals turn to rating agencies to obtain an assessment of the risks of bonds, stocks and financial papers they may acquire and after a careful reading of these ratings the investors, banks and financial institutions proceed to reduce these risks using risk management tools. Risk management is applied in finance. Financial economics deals with hedging problems in to order eliminate credit risks in a particular portfolio through a series of trades or contractual agreements reached to share and induce a reduction of risk by involved parties. Risk management should use financial instruments to negate the effects of risk by using better options, contracts and credit design plans so that such risks are brought to bearable financial costs as the tools cost money and requires a careful balancing of factors that affect credit card risks. When a company grants credit to its customers it incurs the risk of non-payment as credit risk management refers to the systems, procedures and controls which a company has in place to ensure the different collection of consumer payments and minimize its risks. Credit risk assessment and management will form a key part of the companys overall risk management strategy as weak credit risk management is a primary cause of many business failures and that such small business have neither the resources nor the expertise to operate a sound credit risk management system. RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND OBJECTIVES Research Questions Should people invest in a given stock whose returns are hardly predictable? Should people buy an insurance contract in order to protect themselves from theft? Should credit firms be rational and reach a decision on the basis of what they know and subjective assessment with the unfolding evidence? What are the principles of rationality and bounded rationality? How to control credit risks in a financial management? What are the proper risk management tools and techniques to apply? Objectives To have a useful assessment of credit risk in a financial management It is important to understand that no criterion is the objectively correct one to use as the choice is a matter of economic, individual and collective judgment imbued with psychological and behavioral traits To provide an approach to the selection of criterion of choice consistent and rational in making it possible to reconcile a decision and its manner of realization To be a practical investor by accepting a bounded rationality and will bear some risk in the end to have an essential motivation for financial risk management RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES Medium and small-sized financial institutions are on their way to establish basic credit risk management systems under certain measures. Since information derived from self-assessment can be useful in a wide range of activities from strengthening risk management systems to formulating business strategy large differentials in business management are likely to arise among financial institutions depending on the utilization of this valuable information. As the Bank of Japan has introduced the Tracing Method of asset assessment and loan losses in order to support financial institutions to maximize the use of their own assessments as a management tool. The Tracing Method is used to observe changes in the condition of individual assets in a time series and is one way to utilize financial institutions self-assessment of assets. The Bank conducted a follow-up analysis in the recent on-site examination to analyze how many of the loans classified in the previous examination (1993-94) were later written off and others in relation to financial losses from support by renunciation of claims, and losses from sales of nonperforming loans to the Cooperative Credit Purchasing Company. The empirical study using the Tracing Method suggests the following points of importance for enhancing credit risk management. 1. Importance of strengthening the early warning functions It is vital to control loans classified as substandard because the likelihood of loan losses in terms of write-offs and others reaching a substantial size in the long term may vary substantially depending on the adequacy of the long-term management of this classification of loans. . Importance of utilizing statistical methods which cover the life-span of loans For example, for loans, there is a tendency for the loan-loss ratio to rise after the third year following the assessment. 3. Importance of avoiding loan concentration Financial institutions with highly concentrated loans in terms of industry had higher loan-loss ratios, while institutions with diversified loan portfolios had relatively low ratios. 4. Importance of gathering financial institutions own default data for risk quantification The Tracing Method covers all these data and enhances establishment of financial institutions own default data for credit risk quantification. There is a continuation to check and monitor the credit risk management systems at financial institutions on the off-site basis and also during the on-site examination in a more risk-focused, seamless and flexible manner, taking individual institutions circumstances into consideration. In addition, there continue to use research methods of quantifying credit risks as well as conducting follow-up analysis of the Tracing Method, in line with the worldwide trend to further enhance credit risk assessment within the financial management. In-house credit scoring improves speed and accuracy. SAS Credit Risk Management includes a solution for in-house scorecard development and monitoring. Applying SAS advanced statistical techniques to own proprietary credit data enables person to perform more accurate credit risk assessments. The solution supports a wide range of modeling techniques including classification trees, neural networks, time-series modeling and others. Using the SAS solution, person can develop complex roll rate models, predict delinquencies and perform vintage curve analysis to generate highly accurate credit loss forecasts. Once the analysis is complete, customizable templates enable reports to be published via e-mail or wireless devices and allow managers to quickly identify problems and meet regulatory requirements related to credit risk. ANTICIPATED FINDINGS/CONTRIBUTIONS TO KNOWLEDGE Credit Policy is then crucial for the assessment The management of accounts receivable begins with the decision whether to grant credit to a customer on how much and what terms as it is a logical starting point for the examination of credit policy to include the companys systems and procedures. Credit policy needs to be operated in a balanced way and if it is operated too much then the sales and profits will be lost and if it is less operated then risk of non payment and bad debt will increase. There needs to have an appropriate process for handling credit by the financial management so as to avoid major risks in the process. There needs to apply and create an ideal credit selection, selecting the right customers that will be given the grant for credit in determining individual credit limitations, it is important to be aware of the credit standards that must be acceptable by both sides of the process which is the assessment of potential customers credit quality. There needs to have an understandable credit terms and conditions and a more accessible collection policy to avoid credit risk occurrences. The decision to grant credit to a doubtful account requires an assessment of whether the account is one of a group for which as a group profits after bad debt losses will allow for a least a minimally acceptable return on investment. It depends first on the evaluation of the credit risk on the assessment of the likelihood of getting repaid or losing the goods shipped on credit. There needs to figure out what the profitability of the account will be if it proves successful. The more profitable the account, the greater the credit risk that can be occur as a high risk customer may not get credit from banks but can get ample lines from finance companies as certain types of credit risks have been found amendable to formula evaluation once the relevant credit characteristics have been identified. Most business credit is still granted after an individual evaluation of a credit request in lieu of using factor approach in analyzing and granting credit loans as credit card companies have adopted such technique in the process. The approach cannot be directly be applied to customers whose business is significant to the enterprise that it does not represent a group as credit should be granted to major customers relative to their financial status range even if larger customers is of better advantage.